Marine Agriculture

Marine Agriculture
Marine Agriculture

Marine agriculture uses techniques of artificial cultivation, such as growing, managing, and harvesting, and applies them to marine plants and animals. The products are then used for human consumption.

Marine agriculture is also known as mariculture or aquaculture, although aquaculture is a more general term referring to both freshwater and marine farming of organisms. The world’s oceans cover approximately three-fourths of the globe, including vast regions of unexplored life and landforms.

The potential for exploiting the oceans agriculturally is great but currently meets significant obstacles. Because of the expense of equipment and personnel involved, most marine species are not cultivated.

Coastal pollution, habitat destruction, competition for land use, and economics all limit mariculture programs. Nevertheless, mariculture does offer several food, medical, and other products that are currently being marketed.


Seaweeds are edible, especially the red and brown algae. The three most common types of seaweeds are known by their Japanese names: nori (Porphyra), a red seaweed high in vitamin C and digestible protein; kombu (Laminaria); and wakame (Undaria), high in calcium.

They are eaten raw, cooked, or dried and have several vitamins and minerals as well as protein. Seaweeds are low in fats, and 35 to 50 percent of the dry weight of red seaweeds is protein.

Seaweeds can be used to add taste and variety to foods. They are used as a hot vegetable, boiled and formed into cakes and fried, in salads, and in preparing desserts, breads, soups, casseroles, sandwiches, teas, and candy.

The world’s yearly harvest of seaweeds is approximately 8.4 million tons of green seaweed, 2.8 million tons of brown seaweed, and 1.2 million tons of red seaweed. The total seaweed market in 1998 was worth more than $5 billion, with $600 million deriving from food additives alone.

China is the leading harvester and the world’s biggest seaweed consumer. Japan is the leading seaweed importer and, at the end of the twentieth century, employed more than thirty-five thousand people in the industry. Harvesting and marketing edible seaweed is a growing business in the United States, especially on the West Coast.


Seaweeds produce several types of phycocolloids, starchlike chemicals used in food processing and manufacturing. An important type called algin, which makes up alginic acid and alginates, is used inmanufacturing dairy products such as ice cream, cheese, and toppings as well as to prevent frostings and pies from desiccation.

Another extract is agar, used to form jellies and protect fish and meats during canning. Agar is also used in low-calorie foods and as a thickener. Red algae is a source of the agglutinant carrageenan, which is used in many food products as an emulsifier to give body to dairy products and other processed foods, including instant puddings. Additionally, seaweed-based food additives are common in prepared and fast foods, including hamburgers and yogurt.

Kelp farming is a major livelihood in the eastern Pacific, with approximately 140,000 tons harvested each year for the extraction of alginates used in food and food additives. Kelp is a good source of calcium, potassium, iron, iodine, bromine, and zinc. It is also low-fat, has some protein, and is a natural tenderizer. Kelp flakes are used as a low-sodium salt substitute.


The use of marine plants inmedicine is still in the early stages of exploration and faces many challenges, including identification of useful chemicals and the cultivation of significant quantities.

Dinoflagellates and other microalgae are being investigated for compounds that might fight cancerous tumors. Diluted algae toxins from red tides can be used to inhibit the growth of most bacteria. Green algae has halosphaerin, a strong antibiotic.

Seaweed is used in wound dressings in hospitals and as a source of iodine, A, B, D, and E vitamins, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfur, and trace antioxidants such as selenium and zinc. The seaweed extract agar is used in laxatives and as a medium to grow bacteria and molds.

Kelp is rich in chlorophyll, which can help detoxify the body, fight inflammations, and increase the formation of oxygen-carrying red blood cells. Chlorophyll is also used to fight bad breath and as an ingredient in deodorants.

Kelp is used to reduce cholesterol, treat gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary disorders, and lower blood pressure. The alginic acid produced by kelp can rid the body of radioactive strontium, the most dangerous to humans of all components in the fallout from atomic explosions.

Other Uses

Marine plants are used for a variety of other purposes. Seaweed is used as a component of many fertilizers, as a food additive in animal feed, and to reduce soil acidity.

Research on cattle and swine has revealed that the addition of seaweed to animal feed can enhance the immune system and makes the meat a more desirable color. It can also save cattle from the effects of fungus-infected grass.

Seaweed is used as an ingredient in cosmetics as well as to nourish, revitalize, condition, and improve the skin, hair, and body. It is used in cleansers, toners, moisturizers, scrubs, body lotions, and hair and bath products.

Seaweed farm, Bali, Indonesia
Seaweed farm, Bali, Indonesia

The giant kelp (Macrocystis) is a major source of algin for commercial uses, as is the brown algae Laminaria, which is harvested in the north Atlantic. Algin is used in shampoos, shaving cream, plastics, pesticides, rubber products, paper, paints, and cosmetics.

Additionally, kelp is used in emulsifiers for toothpastes and printing inks. Kelp has even been used to make fishing lines. Some research has been done on using kelp as a fuel to produce a clean-burning methane gas. Kelp can be used to ferment human waste and garbage, which can then be sold as fertilizers.